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The following are specified limit for high pressure boiler from different organization:- ASME Guidelines for Water Quality in Modern Industrial Water Tube Boilers for Reliable Continuous Operation:-Boiler Feed Water Boiler Water Drum Pressure (psi) Iron (ppm Fe) Copper (ppm Cu) Total Hardness (ppm CaCO3) Silica (ppm SiO 2) Total Alkalinity**File Size: 272KB
The following below are parameters in determining the quality of steam produced by boiler: - The amount of steam which is generated by boilers in accordance with required amount to drive turbine generator. The amount of steam produced is usually in the unit form of Kg/hour or tons/hour.[PDF]
steam (vapor) mixture. A steam quality of 0 indicates 100 % liquid, (condensate) while a steam. quality of 100 indicates 100 % steam. One (1) lb of steam with 95 % steam and 5 % percent of. liquid entrainment has a steam quality of 0.95. The measurements needed to obtain a steam quality measurement are temperature, pressure,
Unacceptable steam quality at high pressure turbine exit. High live steam pressure in combination with low reheat pressure (and/or low live steam temperature) leads to unacceptable steam properties at the high pressure turbine exit (before reheat) (See Figs 7.4(f) and (g)).Looking at the sensitivity of reheat pressure for optimisation 2
The guidelines for water quality control of water/steam in boiler plants of 60 kg/cm2 and above are furnished as recommended by many boiler designers. The feed water limits. For drum operating pressure kg/cm2 (g) 61-100, 101-165, and 166-205 with PO4 treatment type of boilers: Hardness, in ppm, has to be nil for all pressures.
High pressure boilers with 75kg/cm2 are normally designed close to the limiting conditions of the heat transfer, tube metal temperature, circulation etc. to make the units compact and economical. The principal problem in modern high pressure boilers is the control of corrosion and steam quality.
Steam quality is a measure of the amount of liquid water contaminating the steam. (For example, steam at 100% quality contains no liquid water and appears as a 100% clear gas, while steam at 90% quality contains 90% steam by weight and 10% water by weight in the form of a fog, cloud, or droplets.)[PDF]
Steam quality ranges from 0 to 100% and is defined as the ratio of the amount of saturated steam vapor to the total steam amount (which may consist of both saturated steam vapor and liquid). A 100% steam quality translates to zero amount of saturated steam liquid and, in this condition, the steam is termed to be “dry.” 4.
A low-pressure fire-tube boiler can usually tolerate high feed-water hardness with proper treatment while virtually all impurities must be removed from water used in some modern, high-pressure boilers. Only relatively wide ranges can be given as to maximum levels of alkalis, salt, silica, phosphates etc, in relation to working pressure.[PDF]
Water treatment recommendations vary depending on the operating pressure of the boiler, the application (steam or hot water), and other parameters. General guidelines to prevent corrosion and scaling in low pressure boilers are as follows: Total Hardness 1 PPM Maximum . Total Alkalinity 600 PPM Maximum . Total Silica 150 PPM Maximum[PDF]
the boiler/HRSG evaporator water, because elevated carryover can be a major source of corrosive impurities in the steam. Carryover is a function of drum pressure and therefore is more important at high steam pressures.2 d) Operators of all units must recognize that attemperation water injected directly into
Steam Purity Purity or chemistry requirements for steam can be as simple as a specified maximum moisture content, or can include maximum concentrations for a variety of chemical species. Often, for low pressure building or process heater steam, only a maximum moisture content is specified. This may be as high as 0.5% or as low as 0.1%.
1. Priming - This is the ejection of boiler water into the steam take-off and is generally due to one or more of the following:-Operating the boiler with too high a water level.-Operating the boiler below its design pressure; this increases the volume and the velocity of the steam released from the water surface.-Excessive steam demand. 2.
The larger capacities of a steam and hot water boiler are powerful enough to support large-scale, high demand critical operations that see swings in steam demand. The water stored in the steam boilers allows for a much better response to changing steam demand from the plant than the single through design of a steam generator.
“A combination of belly pans as primary separator and labyrinth separator and secondary scrubbing device can deliver up to 99.5% steam quality. The high-purity steam applications, requiring 99.95% steam quality, is achieved with a system of belly pans and a chevron-type scrubber with mesh pads.
Steam Sample Conditioning and Collection. Sampling solutions for steam & water sampling.Sample Conditioning Panels built as per standard ASME PTC 19.11 and VGB/DGRL. For proper conditioning of your steam and water samples Steam apllications Demi Water, Feedwater, Condensate, Boiler Water, LP Drum Water, LP/HP Steam, Life Steam, Main Steam Demi Water, Feedwater, Condensate, Boiler …
At high pressures, steam actually dissolves a portion of the mineral salts in boiler water. While this is not a concern with most common minerals at pressures less than 1,000 psi, vaporous carryover of silica can occur at pressures as low as 400 psig.[PDF]
quality for high pressure boilers of the order of specific electrical conductivity less than 0.5 mmho/cm with hardness completely removed and silica less than 0.02 ppm.
A high pressure boiler plant of 51 to 500 horsepower is exempt from the high pressure attendance requirements of item A if the plant is operated at low pressure. All boilers must either be shut down or shifted to low pressure. If a boiler is shifted to low pressure, it must have the following controls, safety devices, and conditions: §